In deferred allocation, the decision about who performs an activity instance
is only made at run time of the business process. To this end, there is no
distinction between deferred allocation and role-based allocation. However,
in deferred allocation, rather than using the role information defined during
design time, the allocation is performed as an explicit step in the business
process, and not influenced by role information
Authorization allocates persons to activity instances based on their positions.
So, a list of positions is enumerated that specifies the persons who can perform
the activity instance. This could also be achieved by adding a new role
that captures the authorization. A specific type of authorization that uses
capabilities of the knowledge worker to perform allocation is also possible.
Separation of Duties
The separation of duties allocation scheme relates different allocations within
one business process. For instance, a document needs to be signed and countersigned
by two employees with a common role. In role-based allocation, these
activities could be performed by the same employee. Separation of duties allows
relating allocations in a way that this is ruled out, so that each document
is signed by two different employees.
In the case handling allocation scheme, certain activities in a business process
require an understanding of the overall case. In these environments, it is useful
that the same knowledge worker deals with all activities of one business
process instance. This avoids errors and reduces processing time, because the
knowledge worker already knows the case, and so can solve the issues at hand
more efficiently than a colleague to whom the case is not known “retain familiar” allocation scheme is very similar to case handling; however,
not all activity instances of a case are allocated to one specific knowledge
worker, but rather only a subset of them.
The idea of history-based allocation is that a person is allocated to an activity
instance based on what this person worked on previously, i.e., on the history
of the activity instance that he or she completed. This includes other business
process instances. The goal is to allocate work to persons according to their
personal experiences and expertise that is not represented in the role information.
While this is not part of a role specification, this information needs
to be represented in the business process management system so that it can
decide on the allocation based on the history and personal experiences. This
allocation scheme is useful for realizing a “one face to the customer” strategy,
in which for each customer there is a dedicated individual responsible for all
aspects of communication with it.
If organizational allocation is used, not roles but the positions within the
overall organization are used to allocate activity instances. For instance, to
authorize expenditure, the manager of the organizational unit that requested
the expenditure needs to approve. Depending on the particular language used
to express organizational allocation, complex allocation rules can be realized,
all of which take advantage of the organizational structure of the company.